Illegal adoption occurs through two ways: carelessness or intentional action. The former, while still able to render adoption illegal and result in the removal of a child from his or her adoptive home, is more forgivable than the latter.
Intentionally illegal adoption practices involve black market adoption, human trafficking and different levels of fraud. Black market adoptions involve purchasing a child, or spending copious amounts of money to bypass certain formalities in the adoption process. If an adoptive couple pursuing an international adoption chooses to work with a country that isn't Hague certified, meaning that country abides by set, ethical adoption laws, then there is a chance the child was removed from his or her family without the parent's consent. While this isn't a universal truth, some countries recognize a way to bring money into their communities and seize the opportunity despite the effect it can have on these biological families. Akin to human trafficking, children who are either removed from their families or lose their parents are sometimes sold to adoptive parents or for reasons that are not in the interest of the child's welfare.
Possible situations that can cause domestic adoptions to be rendered illegal include adoption fraud. In the case of infant adoption, an agency or attorney and birth mother may charge unnecessary fees and charges, taking advantage of the child. Adopters may claim reimbursements or tax credits illegally. And birth fathers who are not notified of an infant placement can also contest a placement within a certain period of time after the child's birth.