Public adoption, one handled by a state agency and foster system, is sometimes called a "free adoption." Although a bit of a misnomer, free adoption is an appropriate term so far as to refer to the kind of federal and state reimbursements, credits and financial aid public adoption yields. When juxtaposed to the tens of thousands of dollars associated with private and international adoption, public adoption seems to live up to the idea of "free adoption" even more.
Public adoption can cost anywhere from zero to a few thousand dollars, and because many foster adoptions are of children with special needs, the state agency may reimburse any attorney, homestudy or travel fees up to $2,000, making the adoption nearly or entirely free.
Adoption subsidies can be awarded to augment the medical needs of an adopted child after placement, and some children with medical issues may qualify for Medicaid or Social Security Insurance coverage.
Federal adoption aid is under the Federal Title IV-E Adoption Assistance program. Each state has different eligibility requirements and those who are not eligible for the Title IV-E assistance can apply for State assistance, via Title XX. About 40 percent of employers also support adoption and provide some form of financial assistance or parental leave, although this isn't always exclusive to free adoptions.